We live in a multilingual world. It is not uncommon to walk down the
street in any U.S. city and hear several different languages being
spoken. Around the world, children are learning English as a second
language at a very young age, enabling them to develop the skills
necessary to interact with people all over the globe. There is no doubt
about the benefits of being able to communicate in more than one
language. Such ability offers the opportunity for independence, whether
for business, education, leisure or travel.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 10 million children
between the ages of 5 and 17, or about 20 percent of children over 5,
already speak a language other than English at home. Experts are citing
more and more evidence of the benefits of multilingual development from
an early age. While there has been some suggestion that learning a
second language can delay speech acquisition and language development,
research demonstrates otherwise.

More and more parents are seeking to provide their children with
the advantages that bilingualism offers. That goal leads to some basic
questions. When does language acquisition start? When and how should
children begin learning a second language?

The basics

The young mind, particularly in infancy, is malleable. In the
first few months, crying, whimpering and cooing are the primary forms of
communication. Soon a baby starts to distinguish individual sounds and
will begin to mimic those sounds or syllables. He will learn to
distinguish between "ma" and "da" and will start to babble.

Vocalization is a baby’s way of entertaining himself, but it is
also how he discovers ways to use his mouth, his tongue and vocal chords
to make sounds. At one point, his speech may sound almost as though he
is making sense. This is because his tones and patterns are based on the
language he hears around him. Eventually, these babblings will develop
into individual words that will facilitate true communication. The
individual phonemes, or words sounds, that develop are primarily based
on the language spoken in the home. Young children who hear more than
one language develop additional sounds and, eventually, additional words
that represent concepts, objects or people.

Programs that teach infants sign language have claimed to help
babies as young as 10 months to communicate, before they are able to
articulate with words. Experts say learning to communicate through a
second language, even sign language, can be beneficial to cognitive
development. However, raising a bilingual child requires a commitment of
consistency in the long-term.

In her article, "Two or More Languages in Early Childhood: Some
General Points and Practical Recommendations
," Annick De Houwer of the
University of Antwerp and Science Foundation in Flanders, Belgium says,
"A prevailing idea is that it is very easy for children to learn a new
language and that hardly any effort is involved. However, learning
language, even one, is a process that takes many years.

While it is true that language acquisition is easier when it is
done at a young age, it is the opportunities to hear and use a language
consistently over time that brings success.
De Houwer points out,
"Languages are very complex. To learn all their complexities, one needs a
lot of life experience…The environment plays an important role in
learning to speak. Children learn to speak only when they hear people
talk to them in many different circumstances."

Pros and cons

Is there a downside to bilingualism? Not so many years ago, the
prevailing wisdom was that children who learn to speak two languages
tended to confuse the two, interchanging words from both languages in
their speech, even within the same sentence. However, studies have shown

Researchers at the University of British Columbia and Ottawa
studied infants to find out whether the demand of acquiring more sounds
and words leads to differences in language development. The experiment
involved repeatedly presenting two different objects labeled as "bih"
and "dih." In every group tested, the bilingual infants noticed the
change in the object’s name at a later age (20 months vs. 17 months)
than the monolingual babies. While this may seem like the monolingual
infants were more successful, the researchers theorized that the
bilingual infants were focusing more on making a connection between
objects and words, rather than just attending to details of sound.

Another study of 40 7-month-old babies by The Language,
Cognition, and Development Lab at the International School for Advanced
Studies in Trieste, Italy also suggests exposure to more than one
language at an early age has benefits. Half of the babies in this study
came from homes where two different languages were spoken. The
experiment involved using a computer where characters were displayed on
one of two screens just after word-like sounds were played. Researchers
tested the babies’ ability to anticipate upon which screen a character
would appear based on various sounds. Only the babies from the bilingual
homes were able to use the newly learned sounds to predict where the
cartoon would appear. The author of the study, Jacques Mehler, points
out that this skill can apply to more than just the ability to switch
between languages.

Experts say babies raised in a bilingual environment may exhibit
some slight delays in speech development, but that delay is only
temporary. Overall, the benefits can be far-reaching.

According to Carey Myles, author of Raising Bilingual Children,
"Bilingual language skills have also been correlated with improved
cognitive performance in children. According to the Center for Applied
Linguistics in Washington, D.C., bilinguals take a more creative
approach to problem-solving, read earlier on average than their
monolingual peers, and score higher on standardized tests like the SAT."

Beyond the obvious benefits of a second language, Myles points
out, "…language is a powerful factor in shaping a child’s identity. When
children in bilingual families understand the culture of each parent,
family bonds are strengthened."

Giving children fluency in more than one language is possible,
but it is not simple.
Parents should have realistic expectations about
the process and results of raising a bilingual child. "Even parents able
to spend every summer in the ‘home country’ or to enroll their children
in language immersion programs at school may find that their children’s
language proficiency is not exactly the same in each language," Myles
notes. "The good news is that this is completely normal and what most
adult bilinguals typically experience, too."

Methods of instruction

Families wishing to promote their child’s second language
acquisition have options. One parent, one language, (OPOL) is one method
in which each parent speaks only one language.
In this way, the child
learns to distinguish between the two languages. Another method is the
"home language approach.
" Here the family speaks one language inside the
home, while the child acquires the community’s language outside the
home. A third option is immersion, often done through a formal program.

"I think there are probably as many ways as there are families,"
says Myles. "Parents should consider their situation and what resources
they have to support their minority language. I don't think one can say
a certain method is better than others; although I don't think
artificial schedules, like French at dinnertime, really work.

There are drawbacks to any method. Myles points out that when only
one parent is providing exposure to a second language, "it can be hard
on that parent. With limited exposure to the minority language, children
are naturally stronger in the majority language. It is not uncommon for
a parent in that situation to give up using the minority language
exclusively with the children, in favor of better communication."

Some parents turn to immersion programs through formal education
at schools like the French Academy of Bergen County. "At 2 years old,
90 percent of the curriculum is taught in French," explains Executive
Director Anne-Sophie Gueguen. "As the children get older, the number of
hours taught in English slowly increases."

By the time children are in fourth grade, Gueguen says they
receive equal teaching in both French and English. "The ultimate goal at
FABC is to raise children equally in both languages."

Gueguen understands the advantages of speaking two languages,
citing skills many do not usually associate with language. "The
intellectual stimulation involved in learning two languages, knowing two
words for one meaning, reinforces abstraction and problem solving
skills. The benefits of this stimulation are remarkable in math."

Another way children often "pick up" a second language is
referred to as "receptive bilingualism." In this case, children
understand the minority language spoken at home, but do not speak it.
"This kind of bilingualism is more common than people realize in the
United States," says Myles. There are ways in which parents can
encourage children to speak their second language. Sometimes parents
tell their children that the grandparents do not understand English.
"Some parents simply don’t respond until rebellious older children use
the appropriate language," Myles explains.

No matter which method parents use, reading books is an
excellent means of supporting language acquisition. Early language
development depends on vocabulary development. Parents can take
advantage of this time spent reading with their children to encourage
vocabulary growth in both languages. In fact, any time parents read with
their children, the benefits are extensive and it is never too soon to
begin this practice.

Though most children who grow up with two languages do so
because they live in bilingual homes, there are an increasing number of
parents who make the choice of bilingualism for their children. The
advantages of a second language are clear, and that’s the same in any


Source: NorthJersey.com – http://tinyurl.com/ykl5x8m